How Do Scientists Date The Age Of The Earth?

By collecting samples of sediment, scientists are able to obtain various types of kinetic information based on the concentration of cesium-137 found in the samples. Lead-210, a naturally occurring radionuclide with a half-life of 21.4 years, is also used to obtain kinetic information about the earth. Radium-226, a grandparent of lead-210, decays to radon-222, the radioactive gas that can be found in some basements.

AIG’s only presentable evidence is an ancient written work that is known to be filled with abstract symbolism. These
statements would have been true in the 1940s and early 1950s,
when the K-Ar method was first being tested, but they were not
true when Morris (92) and Slusher (117) wrote them. By the mid- to late 1950s the decay constants and
branching ratio of 40K were known to within a few percent from direct laboratory
counting experiments (2).

Indeed, every stage of Earth history has been dated with exquisite accuracy and precision thanks to radiometric techniques. Through geologic time, the polarity of the Earth’s magnetic field has switched, causing reversals in polarity. The Earth’s magnetic field is generated by electrical currents that are produced by convection in the Earth’s core. During magnetic reversals, there are probably changes in convection in the Earth’s core leading to changes in the magnetic field. The Earth’s magnetic field has reversed many times during its history. When the magnetic north pole is close to the geographic north pole (as it is today), it is called normal polarity.

Today, all the constants for the isotopes used in radiometric
dating are known to better than 1 percent. Morris
(92) and Slusher (117) have selected obsolete information out of old literature and
tried to represent it as the current state of
knowledge. Slusher
(117) and Rybka (110) also propose that neutrinos can change decay rates, citing an
hypothesis by Dudley (40) that decay is triggered by neutrinos in a “
neutrino sea” and that changes in the neutrino flux might
affect decay rates.

The surface, or outer layer, made up of continents and oceans, is called the crust. It is the thinnest layer, measuring anywhere between five and 75km (three and 46 miles) thick. A nitrogen – and oxygen- rich layer of many gasses forms the very outer layer of Earth, the atmosphere. Lumps of leftover gas and dust then swirled around our newly formed sun, and spinning larger lumps pulled smaller ones into them and grew.

This is because uranium decayed or changed into lead at such a slow rate that it was not reliable for measuring the age of rocks that were younger than 10,000,000 years old. A later method that used rubidium (which changes into strontium) proved more useful because it is found in nearly all rocks, although it still was not useful for younger specimens. Perhaps the best method for rock dating is the potassium-argon method. This method proved useful to date rocks as young as 50,000 years old. The discovery of the natural radioactive decay of uranium in 1896 by Henry Becquerel, the French physicist, opened new vistas in science. Although Boltwood’s ages have since been revised, they did show correctly that the duration of geologic time would be measured in terms of hundreds-to-thousands of millions of years.

Where Is the Oldest Place on Earth (3.6 Billion Years Old!)

With this, as they try to discount radiometric dating as evidence since we were not around back then, they invalidate their own argument as they suggest that we should accept the words of the Bible as evidence. The 1801 flow
is unusual because it carries very abundant inclusions of rocks
foreign to the lava. These inclusions, called xenoliths (meaning
foreign rocks), consist primarily of olivine, a pale-green
iron-magnesium silicate mineral. They come from deep within the
mantle and were carried upward to the surface by the lava.

Radioactive Dating

A few examples will illustrate
that the comments by Slusher (117) and other creation “scientists” are based on
ignorance of the methods and are unfounded. The data Morris
(92) refers to were published by Evernden and others
(44), but include samples from different islands that formed at
different times! The age of 3.34 million years is from the Napali
Formation on the Island of Kauai and is consistent with other
ages on this formation (86, 87). The approximate age of 250,000 years https://legitdatingsites.com/affairdating-com-review/ was the mean of the
results from four samples from the Island of Hawaii, which is
much younger than Kauai. Contrary to Morris’ concerns,
nothing is amiss with these data, and the statistical reasoning
used by Evernden and his colleagues is perfectly rational and
orthodox. Most of the
“anomalous” ages cited by creation
“scientists”
in
their attempt to discredit radiometric dating are actually
misrepresentations of the data, commonly cited out of context and
misinterpreted.

The trick is knowing which of the various common radioactive isotopes to look for. This in turn depends in the approximate expected age of the object because radioactive elements decay at enormously different rates. This equation implicitly assumes that the starting number of daughter atoms in the rock is known. Knowing the starting amount of daughter element and the amount of decay is critical to calculate an accurate age. Also, groundwater flowing through the rocks can change parent and daughter amounts over time. The various rock layers are given names with assigned ages (Figure 1).

4 The
40Ar/39Ar
technique is an analytical variation of K-Ar dating. The validity
of ages obtained by this technique can be verified from the data
alone in a manner analogous to the Rb-Sr isochron method
discussed above. Such samples are
rare, and so nearly all modern Rb-Sr dating is done by the
isochron method. The beauty of the Rb-Sr isochron method is that
knowledge of the initial Sr isotopic composition is not necessary
— it is one of the results obtained. Contrary to
Slusher’s (117) statement, the amount of
initial 87Sr
is not needed to solve the Rb-Sr isochron age equation, only the
current 87Sr/86Sr
ratio, and the initial 87Sr/86Sr
ratio is not adjusted for any purpose. By the mid- to
late 1800s, geologists, physicists, and chemists were searching
for ways to quantify the age of the Earth.

Well, AIG answers this exact question by explaining that radiometric dating is based on erroneous assumptions and cannot be trusted. AIG suggests that while it seems constant to us, this is a massive extrapolation of data to assume that the rate would have been constant back at the beginning of the earth. However, the reality of radioactivity is that we know the rate of decay is constant based on both physics and mathematics (check out this video for how we can use mathematical proof models to demonstrate constant rates of decay).

Excess argon invalidates the initial condition assumption for potassium dating, and excess helium invalidates the closed-system assumption for uranium dating. The ages shown on the uniformitarian geologic time scale should be removed. These wrong radioisotope ages violate the initial condition assumption of zero (0%) parent argon present when the rock formed. Furthermore, the slow radioactive decay of 40K shows that there was insufficient time since cooling for measurable amounts of 40Ar to have accumulated in the rock.

Geological Setting and Sample Descriptions

The misconception exists that Ussher and Jones were the only ones to arrive at a date of 4000 B.C.; however, this is not the case at all. Jones6 lists several chronologists who have undertaken the task of calculating the age of the earth based on the Bible, and their calculations range from 5501 to 3836 B.C. Stack Exchange network consists of 181 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

This may be the main reason why radiometric dating often gives vastly inflated age estimates. Radioisotope dating (also referred to as radiometric dating) is the process
of estimating the age of rocks from the decay of their radioactive elements. There are certain kinds of atoms in nature that are unstable and spontaneously
change (decay) into other kinds of atoms. For example, uranium will radioactively
decay through a series of steps until it becomes the stable element lead. The original element is
referred to as the parent element (in these cases uranium and potassium), and
the end result is called the daughter element (lead and argon).